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Goal 4:
Ensure inclusive and equitable quality
education and promote lifelong learning
opportunities for all




Overcoming the major global challenges facing humanity today requires profound reform efforts in all areas of society. The guiding principle of sustainable development offers an orientation for the necessary transformation processes.

Education plays a central role in the implementation and support of a more sustainable way of thinking, working and living. At the Institute for Educational Leadership PH Ludwigsburg, University of Education, we are considering the opportunities and tasks of leaders to anchor sustainability and education for sustainable development in educational institutions and in departments for personnel development and training human in companies.

Global challenges such as climate change, loss of biodiversity, degeneration of soil and water, hunger, poverty, migration, human rights, wars, terrorism, etc., call for determined, shared and cooperative action by the international community and individual countries. However, states and municipalities, business enterprises, associations and all other organizations also are in demand - and every individual as a citizen and a consumer.

What is Sustainable Development?

The term "sustainable development" in its todays meaning goes back to the World Commission on Environment and Development. In its final report, the Brundtland Report, the Commission defines development as sustainable if it meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs and choose their own lifestyle (see UNESCO World Commission 1987) . As a result, the concept of sustainable development has gained increasing support and is now acknowledged worldwide as a superior guiding principle, even if there are still major difficulties in its implementation.

In 1992, at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, government officials from more than 170 countries agreed on the guiding principle of "Sustainable Development". Various follow-up conferences have been struggling to agree on specific steps and measures since then.

In 2015, the international community again committed itself to sustainable development and identified seventeen worldwide goals in the Agenda 2030, the Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs, see United Nations 2015).

Figure: United Nations - 17 Goals for Sustainable Development

Fig. 1: 17 Globale Development Goals. Source: UN in cooperation with Project Everyone

The UN document presents all 17 goals side by side. Critical voices are in favor of an alternative form of presentation that assigns the goals to the respective areas such as economic, social and environmental. Among other things, they stress the contradictory nature of objectives such as permanent growth and protection of resources.

Figure: Alternative presentation of the Goals for Sustainable Development

Fig. 2: 17 Sustainable Development Goals, alternative presentation. Quelle: Azote for Stockholm Resilience Centre. Click on the picture to enlarge it.

Germany, too, has set sustainability as a vision and mission for social development and, in 2002, launched a national sustainability strategy. The new and revised edition of the German sustainability strategy from 2016 is based on the 17 SDGs of the UN (see Bundesregierung 2016).

Many municipalities, public institutions and companies now also refer to the SDGs:

However, despite the high-level anchoring and the central importance for social development, both the 17 sustainability goals, the Federal Government's commitment to these goals and the sustainability strategy are not yet known to large sections of the population. Around 60% of citizens had not yet heard of them in a survey in summer 2017, and only around 10% knew the term and stated that they knew what it meant (Deutsches Evaluationsinstitut der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit 2018).

There is widespread agreement that education plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable societies and economic systems.

Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) empowers people to think and act for the future in a positive way. It enables each individual to understand the effects of their own actions on the world and encourages them to make responsible decisions.
(Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e.V. 2019)

Political efforts to strengthen Education for Sustainable Development are taking place at international and national level: In 2002, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution to begin the UN World Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. This program ran from 2005-2015 and has been continued in a Global Action Program. A large number of projects have emerged in this context. In Germany, the National Action Plan on ESD (NAP) was adopted in 2017 to anchor Education for Sustainable Development in all areas of the education system (see Nationale Plattform für Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung 2017, p. 8). In 2019, the German BMBF presented an intermediate-evaluation of the national action plan, which assesses what has been achieved so far. Also in 2019, UNESCO adopted a further follow-up programme, which is specifically and thoroughly geared to the SDGs: Education for Sustainable Development. Towards achieving the SDGs: ESD for 2030 (Summary: ESD for 2030. One Page Summary)

According to the latest large-scale study by the Free University of Berlin (Institut Futur), young people ( 14 to 24 years old) showed a high level of interest in sustainability in their educational settings, but nearly half of the respondents said that they did not see any connection to sustainability and sustainable development in their respective institutions (see Grund/Brock 2018, p. 3) . This coincides with the knowledge gained in the context of the national monitoring of ESD that only 9% of the time spent teaching and attending seminars has clear references to sustainability (see Grund/Brock 2018, p. 4) and that it is predominantly committed individuals who implement ESD. A curricular anchoring of ESD has so far taken place, if at all, mainly in the natural and social sciences such as geography and biology, followed by politics and economics (Landorf et al. 2008; Michelsen et al. 2011; Buddeberg 2014; Bagoly-Simó 2014; Arnold et al. 2016) . Large differences can also be observed between the different federal states. Baden-Württemberg, for example, has integrated Education for sustainable development as a guiding principle across all subjects in its new education plans (ZSL 2019) . Such curricular anchoring of ESD requires scientifically founded, theoretical models and viable pedagogical concepts.

A holistic approach to ESD is also considered to be particularly beneficial in educational organizations such as day-care centres, universities, clubs and businesses. The so-called "Whole Institution Approach" goes beyond the idea of teaching and training on the subject of "sustainability" by also adapting methods and learning processes. In addition, the institution as a whole, in the sense of a "green economy", is guided in its actions and management by the principles of sustainability and thus operates profitably and in an environmentally and socially responsible manner. For the successful implementation of this approach, comprehensive training measures and the best possible participation of all members in decision-making processes are necessary. Cooperation and the establishment of a network can also effectively support the "Whole Institution Approach" (Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e. V. 2019) .

The concept and the design of ESD

The concept of ESD describes a holistic approach to education, which "takes into account learning content and outcomes, as well as pedagogy and the learning environment" (Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e. V. 2019) , and always refers to current research results. Although the learning subjects are wide-ranging, they can be clearly derived from the guiding principle of sustainable development and aim to show consequences "for ecological, social and economic processes" and to discuss value attitudes (Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission e.V. 2012, p. 9). The methodological-didactical approach is usually based on the active participation of the learners by using participative methods that allow a critical examination of the learning objects and promote reflexivity, problem-solving skills, teamwork and an open mind for new experiences. Research-based learning is also increasingly becoming the focus of ESD (Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e. V. 2019) . A wide range of suggestions for implementation in the extracurricular sector can be found in UNESCO publications on the implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e. V. 2019, p. 9).

Although various theoretical models for ESD are being discussed and tested both in and out of school (e.g. Künzli David 2007; KMK/BMZ 2016; de Haan 2008; Rieckmann 2010; Lude/Overwien 2014) , only two of the concepts have become well-known in Germany so far: “Gestaltungskompetenz” (shaping competence) and Global Learning (see UNECE 2006, p. 57).

The concept of "Gestaltungskompetenz" (shaping competence) goes back to Gerhard de Haan and Dorothee Harenberg (de Haan/Harenberg 1999; de Haan 2008) and is based on the OECD's International Framework of Key Competences (2005). This refers to the "ability (...) to apply knowledge about sustainable development and to identify problems of unsustainable development" in order to be able to "make, understand and implement decisions with which sustainable development processes can be realized” (De Haan 2008, p. 31). The concept of “Gestaltungskompetenz” has been used for numerous implementations in Germany (e.g. BLK 21, Transfer 21, UN Decade Project ESD Award).

In contrast, the educational concept of global learning pursues a less environment-oriented approach and wants to promote openness to the world and empathy. The concept aims to make politics, globalisation and development processes understandable for students. It is explained in more detail in the Orientation Framework for the Learning Area Global Development (KMK/BMZ 2016) In particular, the principles of justice, between the current world population, the genders and generations, and the principles of participation and cooperation in the forms of involvement, negotiation, understanding and interdisciplinarity of action are common starting points for these and other concepts of Education for Sustainable Development.

Through the respective preceding and follow-up comparison with the quality criteria, it should be made sure whether the objectives of an educational event in the field of ESD have been satisfactorily achieved.

ESD and lifelong learning

The concept of ESD focuses on the learning of people at all ages. Thus all areas of education are addressed, from early education, school, extracurricular youth education, vocational training and higher education to adult education and senior citizens' education. All groups of the population should be reached. In all these areas of education, there are also various efforts to integrate sustainability issues. In practice-oriented writings and scientific publications, however, the school sector dominates.

At the Institute for Education Management we teach according to the two mottos "Learning by Difference" and "We move Education". Leaders, junior executives, and specialists from all areas of education learn from and with each other. We are therefore also taking the issue of sustainability into the focus of lifelong learning and life-wide education.

ESD and the Sustainable Development Goals

The UN Sustainable Development Goals of 2015 and their central goal of a peaceful and sustainable society are becoming increasingly important for ESD. The fourth objective, 'Quality Education', is dedicated to education, and ESD is explicitly mentioned in section 4.7. The idea is to ensure that by 2030, "all learners acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to promote sustainable development, including through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, a culture of peace and non-violence, world citizenship and the appreciation of cultural diversity and the contribution of culture to sustainable development" (Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e.V. 2019).
Education for sustainable development is thus always the key to the further objectives of Agenda 2030, which cannot be achieved without the appropriate educational background.

Current developments and sample projects

The current report on the international implementation of ESD and Global Citizenship Education (GCED) was published in December 2018 with the title "Progress on Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship Education". The report covers the period 2012 to 2016 and, with information from a total of 83 countries, it is the most comprehensive report up until now.

The analysis of the current survey shows that in most countries (98%) the basic principles mentioned are part of national law and educational policy. In addition, 81 out of 83 countries confirmed that the main issues have been incorporated into their education plans. Meanwhile, the situation is different in the area of the development of teachers' skills: 23% of those surveyed stated that the basic principles were "in no way" anchored in the initial and continuing education and training of teachers, 75% spoke of only "slightly" anchoring (Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e.V. 2019) . For this reason, efforts must be intensified to train educational staff, and especially managers.

In addition to strategic and political efforts, the World Action Program also includes practical measures on ESD (Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e.V. 2000, p. 33) . Networks, municipalities and learning locations that set a good example are thereby honored by the BMBF (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research) and DUK (German UNESCO Commission) for "a particularly successful implementation and sustainable anchoring of ESD". Between 2016 and 2018, a total of 219 campaigns and projects received an award for the outstanding implementation of Agenda 2030.

One example is the chocolate museum of the Lindt company in Cologne, which has developed in recent years into a real learning centre for ESD. By committing itself to "making the social, economic and ecological aspects of the chocolate supply chain understandable for its visitors", the museum has set a strong example in terms of ESD. "Every year 3,500 guided tours, seminars and courses are held to encourage target groups to reflect on aspects of sustainability" (Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e.V. 2019).

In the category "Municipality", the city of Aalen was recently honoured for the exemplary expansion and consolidation of ESD. All city offices are involved in ESD activities through the Agenda Office. The municipal council has made education for sustainable development an official part of the city's guiding principles. The Local Agenda 21 Aalen has been realizing education and work for sustainable development in the city of Aalen for 20 years. In addition to established topics such as energy, Europe, biodiversity, mobility and schools, a new focus will be placed on youth and Smart Future City. Through the structure of the Agenda with its Agenda Groups, Agenda Parliament, Agenda Council and Agenda Office, the municipality has continuously developed and has created effective citizen participation and networking of the stakeholders in the city" (Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e.V. 2019).

The regional network "Umwelt macht Schule" (UmS) managed by the Goethe-Institut Moscow is another example of successful implementation of ESD. With 800 schools and 52 trained ESD teachers' instructors, the Goethe-Institut's regional project in Eastern Europe and Central Asia with inter-regional connections pursues the goal of "creating an educational network of schools across sometimes hostile and sometimes even warlike borders. ESD serves in this context as a common roof" (Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e.V. 2019).

All winners of the four award sessions so far are published on the homepage of the German ESD Commission e.V. bne-portal.de.

The UN Decade has helped ESD progress a long way, led to numerous innovative projects, and produced an almost incalculable variety of materials and teaching examples. However, it is not only important to address sustainability issues in individual projects and teaching, but also to structurally initiate sustainability in the organizations themselves (Grundmann 2017, p. 3) . The step must be taken from “project to structure” (German National Committee for the UN Decade of ESD 2013) and sustainability principles need to be integrated into education and training contexts (UNESCO 2014, p. 15).

Need for action at institutional level

In the Global Action Program "Education for Sustainable Development" (GAP), the successor to the UN Decade of ESD, UNESCO defines “transforming learning and training environments” as one of five priority fields of action: “ESD is about much more than preaching and teaching on sustainable development. It is also about practicing sustainable development. Sustainable learning environments such as eco-schools or the idea of a "Green Campus" give teachers and students alike the opportunity to integrate sustainability principles into their everyday lives. Transforming learning and training environments concerns not only managing physical facilities but also changing the ethos and governance structure of the whole institution” (UNESCO 2014, p. 18).

The Whole Institution Approach

Educational institutions influence learners in a certain way with a "double curriculum": on the one hand through the objectives, contents and teaching/learning methods in the learning offers, but also through the way the academy or school itself is managed. If, for example, energy-saving measures are discussed during educational events, but the institution itself is wasteful with energy or other resources, this undermines credibility. However, if the institution itself manages resources in an exemplary manner and, for example, uses renewable energies and possibly also documents this by means of information boards or similar, this strengthens the impact of the learning offers. The Whole Institution or Whole School Approach (Mathar 2016) therefore has a holistic view of the entire educational institution and aims to take principles of sustainability fully into account in all activities of the organization.

Educational leaders play a key role

The currently still insufficient structural anchoring of ESD in schools and other educational organizations could also be due to the fact that very little attention has been paid to the aspect of leadership and the role of leaders. Here too, the UNESCO program marks a turning point: UNESCO identifies leaders of educational institutions as key target groups in their roadmap (UNESCO 2014, p. 18) . The German National Action Plan on ESD also mentions the "development, testing, stabilization and dissemination of qualification concepts for executives" in the various learning locations as an important goal (BMBF 2017, p. 43, translated) . The primary goal is the acquisition of Gestaltungskompetenz, the ability to shape the future, and absolutely requires participation. Thus it is essential that managers support the idea and enable participation.

With their actions, leaders have a decisive influence on life and work, teaching and learning in an educational institution or department. The holistic transformation of an educational institution into a learning and teaching environment oriented towards sustainability requires a comprehensive organizational development process and critical reflection. This should be designed as a holistic process that focuses on the individual organization and integrates the development of personnel and teaching, as is recommended for every other type of organizational development process. The Whole Institution Approach also broadens the view to include aspects that are usually less often considered in organizational development but are of great importance from the point of view of sustainability. These aspects include finance management, material cycles and resource management, structural design, and equipment.

The process of organizational development towards sustainability can be started as an initiative of the management or by taking up initiatives of staff or even learners. In any case, it will only succeed if it is purposefully promoted by the leader and if it is broadly supported in the organization and its social environment. The aim is to stimulate and tap into the problem-solving behavior and creativity of the community. It is the task of the management to start and organize this participative process in order to win over learners, teaching staff, external partners and all other stakeholders of the organization. In order to perform this task successfully, the management itself must be convinced of the concern and represent it in a credible manner.

Transformational Leadership

Furthermore, leaders must adopt an appropriate attitude and perform management duties accordingly. Rolf Dubs, with regard to schools, emphasizes that traditional management is not enough to successfully introduce the innovations and quality improvement the school development processes aim to achieve (see Dubs 2006, p. 143) . In addition to the management that is necessary to ensure the functioning of a school, a transformational leader must encourage employees to identify with the school, inspire them to engage in something new, and open up opportunities for developing their own initiative.

Current approaches to corporate sustainability management in business enterprises also emphasize the potential of transformational leadership. Kerstin Pichel and Heinrich Tschochohei point out that consideration of sustainability issues in organizations and companies increase the complexity that has to be mastered. The necessary balancing of economic requirements, ecological compatibility, and social concerns make it necessary to continually assess, revise, and compromise. Considering the quantity and variety of decisions that have to be taken on a daily basis in organizations, this can only succeed if employees are motivated and allowed to act with a degree of independence (Pichel/Tschochohei 2013, p. 154 et seq.) . Managers and employees often require appropriate support in the form of additional training and personnel development ( see Müller 2010).

Heather Burns et al. point out that leadership for sustainability builds on but goes beyond transformational leadership. The kind of leadership required “could also be termed as ‘facilitation’ or ‘caring’, as the core goal is to guide people and organizations to collaboratively create visions and take action for a more sustainable and resilient world” (see Burns et al. 2015, p. 90) . They question traditional views of leaders that idealize a leader as a person with vision and direction and an “almost enlightened view of how to manage a situation” who can “wisely guide followers through linear, organized solutions” (see ebd., p. 91) . In contrast, Burns et al. understand the role of a leader as “not to lead others, but rather lead with them.” In today’s complicated, interconnected, and rapidly changing world, leaders are not expected to provide solutions, but to create opportunities for people to find new solutions (see ebd., S 92).

In most companies and educational organizations, it is not necessary to start from scratch as existing initiatives can be taken up. Usually, there are already committed people who are active - perhaps only to a limited extent - and whose cooperation can be counted on. Furthermore, it can be assumed that many pupils and some of the teaching staff are (at least latently) willing to actively support measures related to sustainability.

Fields of action and management strategies

From a pragmatic perspective, one can distinguish four stages of integration of sustainability and ESD in an organization (see Müller/Lude/Hancock 2020, p. 5):

Stage 0: Sustainability is not (yet) an Issue
There are little or no significant activities in the organization with regard to sustainability and ESD. Individual teachers or trainers may take up ESD topics in seminars or classes, but there is no shared commitment to sustainability within the organization and no systematic steering of ESD.

Stage I: Projects
The organization has started a process to reflect on and to consider sustainability and ESD. Various ESD topics are taught in seminars or classes, interdisciplinary cooperation has started and initial projects (e.g., recycling initiatives) are realized. Leadership and management are beginning to orientate towards sustainability.

Stage II: System
The organization as a whole is systematically oriented towards sustainability and ESD. Sustainability and ESD are integrated into teaching and daily life of the organization in a variety of ways. The teaching staff largely supports the cause and is involved in the development of teaching concepts and projects, such as the construction of a solar plant, sustainable facility management, or cooperation with external partners. The organization is managed in accordance with the criteria of sustainability.

Stage III: Profile
As with Stage II, the organization as a whole is systematically oriented towards sustainability and has integrated ESD comprehensively into teaching and daily life. In addition, the organization has made sustainability a key issue and developed a specific, expressly communicated sustainability profile that distinguishes itself from other organization. Possibly, this includes the certification according to a formal quality label such as, e.g., “UNESCO Project School” or the European “Eco-Management and Audit Scheme” (EMAS).

Starting from each stage, further steps and changes are possible. The diagram below gives an overview of the steps and fields of action in which leaders can become active.
Practical steps that occur across different stages are highlighted in grey; those specific to one stage have a white background. The fields of action listed under Level 2 "System" are to be seen as a checklist. Therefore, all the suggestions we make have to be pondered as to whether they suit the respective organization, their circumstances, and the cultural and political background. In each case, the organization and its situation must be examined. Some things may not seem feasible at first, but creative solutions can often be found in the second or third attempt.
The steps are depicted in the following figure as a linear process. In reality, however, the steps are closely linked to each other and the action fields must be seen as interconnected. For example, the fields of Participation/Motivation and Information/Communication are closely related to each other and cannot be approached independently. An iterative, experimental approach is therefore recommended in which steps in the process are continually linked back to the previous ones and a step backward is also possible in order to rethink and sharpen basic assumptions. If necessary, goals must be changed, and planned measures adapted.

Fig. 3: Sustainability and ESD: fields of action and management strategies. Practical steps that occur across different stages are highlighted in grey, those specific to one stage have a white background (see Müller/Lude/Hancock 2020, p. 7). Click image to enlarge it.

Have we sparked your interest?

As a part of our Master's Program International Education Management (INEMA) we also offer a module on "Leadership for Education for Sustainable Development". You can find the module description by following this link.

Below you will find the sources mentioned in the text as well as further literature references on the topic.

Arnold, Marie-Therese; Carnap, Anna; Bormann, Inka  (2016): Bestandsaufnahme zur Verankerung von Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung in Bildungs- und Lehrplänen. Berlin: Haus der kleinen Forscher.

Bagoly-Simó, Péter  (2014): Implementierung von BNE am Ende der UN-Dekade. Eine internationale Vergleichsstudie am Beispiel des Fachunterrichts. In: Zeitschrift für Geographiedidaktik, 42 (4), 219–254.

BMBF  (2019): Zwischenbilanz zum Nationalen Aktionsplan Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung.

BNE Konsortium COHEP  (2013): Didaktische Grundlagen zur Bildung für Nachhaltige Entwicklung in der Lehrerinnen- und Lehrerbildung. Textsammlung.

Buddeberg, Magdalena  (2014): Zur Implementation des Konzepts Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. Eine Studie an weiterführenden Schulen in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Münster, New York: Waxmann.

Die Bundesregierung  (2016): Deutsche Nachhaltigkeitsstrategie. Neuauflage 2016.

Burns, Heather; Diamond-Vaught, Heather; Bauman, Corin  (2015): Leadership for Sustainability: Theoretical Foundations and Pedagogical Practices that Foster Change. International Journal of Leadership Studies 9(1), pp. 88-100.

Das deutsche Nationalkomitee für die UN-Dekade „Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung“  (2013): Positionspapier „Zukunftsstrategie BNE 2015+“. Bonn: Deutsche Unesco Kommission e. V.

de Haan, Gerhard  (2008): Gestaltungskompetenz als Kompetenzkonzept für Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. In: Bormann, Inka/de Haan, Gerhard (Hg.): Kompetenzen der Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. (S. 23–43). Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

de Haan, Gerhard; Harenberg, Dorothee  (1999): Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung, Gutachten zum Programm. Bonn: BLK.

Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e. V.  (2012): Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung in der außerschulischen Bildung: Qualitätskriterien für die Fortbildung von Multiplikatorinnen und Multiplikatoren. Leitfaden für die Praxis.

Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e. V.  (2014): Roadmap zur Umsetzung des Weltaktionsprogramms.

Deutsche UNESCO Kommission e. V.  (2019): Was ist BNE? (Abruf 03.12.2019)

Deutsches Evaluationsinstitut der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit  (2018): Die Agenda 2030 in der öffentlichen Meinung. DEval Policy Brief 6/2018.

Dubs, Rolf  (2006): Führung. In: In: Buchen, Herbert/ Rolff, Hans- Günter (Hg.): Professionswissen Schulleitung. Weinheim und Basel: Beltz, S. 102-176.

Evangelische Akademie Bad Boll  (2019): Nachhaltigkeitsbericht 2019 mit integrierter Umwelterklärung. Bad Boll.

Feige Celine  (2012): Effektives Management von Bildungseinrichtungen. Eine empirische Vergleichsstudie zur Identifikation erfolgsrelevanter Handlungsdimensionen des Managements für die pädagogische Wirksamkeit von Schulen und Erwachsenenbildungseinrichtungen. Uelvesbüll: Der Andere Verlag.

Grund, Julius; Brock, Antje  (2018): Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung in Lehr-Lern-Settings. Quantitative Studie des nationalen Monitorings. Befragung junger Menschen.

Grundmann, Diana  (2017): Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung in Schulen verankern. Handlungsfel-der, Strategien und Rahmenbedingungen der Schulentwicklung. Wiesbaden: Springer.

KMK (Ständige Konferenz der Kultusminister der Länder in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland); BMZ (Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung); Engagement Global (Hg.)  (2016): Orientierungsrahmen für den Lernbereich Globale Entwicklung. Berlin, Bonn.

Künzli David, Christine  (2007): Zukunft mitgestalten: Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung – Didaktisches Konzept und Umsetzung in der Grundschule. Bern: Haupt Verlag.

Landorf, Hilary; Doscher, Stephanie; Rocco, Tonette  (2008): Education for sustainable human development: towards a definition. In: Theory and Research in Education, 6(2), 221–236.

Leithwood, Keneth; Jantzi, Doris  (2008): Linking leadership to student learning: The contributions of leader efficacy. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(4), 496–528.

Lude, Armin/Overwien, Bernd  (2014): Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung und Biologische Vielfalt: Kriterienkatalog. In: Lude, Armin/Scholderer, Katrin (Hg.): Nachhaltigkeit lernen rund ums Jahr, S. 158–162.

Mathar, Reiner  (2016): Whole school approach to ESD ? contribution to implement the SDGs in general.

Michelsen, Gerd; Adomßent, Maik; Bormann, Inka; Burandt, Simon; Fischbach, Robert  (2011): Indikatoren der Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. Bad Homburg: VAS-Verlag.

Müller, Ulrich  Nachhaltigkeit – (k)ein Thema für die betriebliche Personal- und Führungskräfteentwicklung? In: Schweizer, Gerd/Müller, Ulrich/Adam, Thomas (Hg.): Werte und Werte im Bildungsmanagement. Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann, S. 327-336.

Müller, Ulrich; Lude, Armin   (2019): Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung als Schulleitungsaufgabe. In: Schulleitung und Schulentwicklung. November 2019. Raabe Verlag: Stuttgart, S. 1-34.

Müller, Ulrich; Lude, Armin; Hancock, Dawson R.   (2020): Leading Schools towards Sustainability. Fields of Action and Management Strategies for Principals. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3031.

Nationale Plattform Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung  (2017): Nationaler Aktionsplan Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung.

OECD – Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development  (2005): Definition und Auswahl von Schüsselkompetenzen OECD.

Pichel, Kerstin; Tschochohei, Heinrich   (2013): Leadership für nachhaltiges Wirtschaften. In: Baumast, Annet/Pape, Jens (Hg.): Betriebliches Nachhaltigkeitsmanagement. Stuttgart: Eugen Ulmer, S. 153-174.

Rieckmann, Marco  (2010): Die globale Perspektive der Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung. Eine europäisch-lateinamerikanische Studie zu Schlüsselkompetenzen für Denken und Handeln in der Weltgesellschaft. Berlin: Berliner Wissenschaftsverlag.

Rode, Horst  (2005): Motivation, Transfer und Gestaltungskompetenz. Ergebnisse der Abschlussevaluation des BLK-Programms “21” 1999–2004. Berlin: Institut Futur.

UNECE – United Nations Economic Comission for Europe  (2006): Indicators for Education for Sustainable Development. Paris: UNECE.

UNESCO  (2019): Framework for the Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Beyond 2019. (Abruf: 25.05.2020)

UNESCO  (o. J.): ESD for 2030. One Page Summary. (Abruf: 25.05.2020)

ZSL - Zentrum für Schulqualität und Lehrerbildung  (2019): Bildungspläne Baden-Württemberg. (Abruf: 03.12.19)

UNESCO World Commission on Environment and Development  (1987): Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future,

United Nations  (2015): The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015.



The module Lead4ESD is being developed as part of the project Center Prodev-Edu by the Institut für Bildungsmanagement in collaboration with the Zentrum für wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung/Center for Lifelong Professional Development.


The establishment of the ZWW is funded by the Ministerium für Soziales und Integration Baden Württemberg using financial means of the European Social Fund as well as by the Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst Baden-Württemberg.

Institut für Bildungsmanagement > Abteilung Bildungsmanagement > Leadership for Education for Sustainable Development > Introduction
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